Chad Profile

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Friday 19 August 2005
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  CHAD - Country Profile Updated: Feb 2005  

AIDS Programmes
 

National Strategic Framework Status
National Strategic Plan (NSP) for the period 1999-2003 available.

National Policies
General policy defined and HIV/AIDS policy exists, legislation under preparation.

RELEVANT CONTACTS

Ministry of Health
Contact person: Dr Djabar Ahmet
Ndjamena, Chad
Tel: 235 52 3407 or 235 25 4040

HIV/AIDS Organisations:

  1. Conajelus
    Contact person: Paturel Belhoume
    Ndjamena, Chad
    Tel: 235 52 3406
    Fax: 235 52 3407
    Email:
    · Founded in 1999 and operating across central Africa, Conajelus primarily supports HIV+ patients and AIDS orphans.

  2. Foyer Norexel Association des PVV+
    Contact person: Dr Noe Call
    Ndjamena, Chad
    Tel: 235 52 34 06
    Fax: 235 52 34 07
    · Offers home visits and private counselling for those living with AIDS. Affiliated to women’s groups working against the spread of the HIV virus.
Country Indicators
Demographic data Year Estimate Source
Population (thousands) 2004 8,854 UNPOP
% Population aged 0-14 2005 47.0 UNPOP
Population Growth Rate 1992-2002 3.1 UNPOP
Urban population, percentage of total 2003 24.8 UNPOP
Urban population growth rate (%) 2000-2005 4.6 UNPOP
Crude birth rate per 1000 2004 48.3 UNPOP
Crude death rate per 1000 2004 19.2 UNPOP
Life expectance at birth 2002 48 WHO
Total fertility rate (children per woman) 2002 6.7 WHO
Maternal mortality (per 100,000 live births) 2000 1100 WHO
Infant mortality rate (per 1000 births) 2000 112 WHO
Under 5 mortality rate (per 1000 children) 2000 193 World Bank
For consistency reasons the data used in the above table are taken from official UN publications
Socio-economic data Year Estimate Source
GNI per capita in Int.US $ (Atlas method) 2002 1,000 World Bank
GNI per capita growth rate 2001-2002 7.8 World Bank
Per capita total expenditure on health (US$) 2001 17 WHO
Government expenditure on health, % of total expenditure 2001 76 WHO
Total adult literacy rate (15+) 2000 57.4 UNESCO
Adult male literacy rate 2000 48.4 UNESCO
Adult female literacy rate 2000 66 UNESCO
Gross male primary school enrolment ratio 2000/2001 90 UNESCO
Gross female primary school enrolment ratio 2000/2001 57 UNESCO
Gross male secondary school enrolment ratio 2000/2001 NA UNESCO
Gross female secondary school enrolment ratio 2000/2001 NA UNESCO
For consistency reasons the data used in the above table are taken from official UN publications
Epidemiological Fact Sheet (From UNAIDS)
Estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS, end of 2003
These estimates include all people with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS, alive at the end of 2003:
Adults and children 200,000  
Adults (15-49) 180,000 Adult rate(%) 4.8%
Women (15-49) 100,000  
Children (0-15) 18,000  
Estimated number of deaths due to AIDS
Estimated number of adults and children who died of AIDS during 2003:
Deaths in 2003 18,000  
Estimated number of orphans
Estimated number of children who have lost their mother or father or both parents to AIDS and who were alive and under age 17 at the end of 2003:
AIDS orphans 2003 96,000  

Assessment of the epidemiological situation **

The Chad/ Cameroon oil pipeline project is the first to incorporate HIV and AIDS awareness programmes into the development programme. The pipeline project, begun in 1998, has the backing of the World Bank. In a pioneering move, The Bank is overseeing the multi-million dollar deal to ensure that the Chadian government spends earnings from the project accountably.

The awareness programme was considered especially important as the oil pipeline was built through region known to have a high HIV prevalence. Prostitutes and truck drivers in the region in eastern Chad, close the border with Central African Republic, had infection rates of 25 to 50 percent.

Low education levels among Chadian women are also considered a problem in tackling the spread of HIV in Chad. According to the World Bank, three quarters of Chadian women aged 15-49 have no education at all and contraception is virtually unheard of.

According to UNAIDS, infection rates are unevenly distributed across the country, with the highest rates of infection in the more densely populated south of the country. UNAIDS also warn that infection rates are expected to increase rapidly, not least because of large refugee populations entering the country from the neighbouring Darfur region of Sudan.

Background to monitoring of HIV

In 2002, sentinel surveillance among women attending antenatal care clinics was conducted in 11 sites of which seven were located in urban areas. Although HIV sentinel surveillance among women attending antenatal care clinics was established in 1992, no sentinel surveys were conducted 1993 and 1994, or from 1996 to 1998, making it difficult to assess trends over time.

In 2002, HIV prevalence among women attending antenatal care clinics ranged from 1.2 percent in Mongo, south-central Chad, to 11.9 percent in Moundou in the far south of the country, close to the border with Central African Republic and Cameroon.

HIV prevalence among women attending antenatal care clinics in the capital N'djamena has been increasing from 2.1 percent in 1995, 4.0 percent in 2000, 5.9 percent in 2001 and 7.5 in 2002.

In Sahr, a border town with the Central African Republic, HIV prevalence rose from 4.1 percent in 1992 to 5.3 percent in 1999, 9.0 percent in 2000 and 8.3 percent in 2002.

In Abeche, eastern Chad close to the border with Sudan, the HIV prevalence rate increased from 0.3 percent in 1992, to 5.2 percent in 1999 and 3.4 percent in 2002. However, this could be expected to rise more significantly following the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees in the area.

** Information taken from UNAIDS/WHO epidemiological fact sheets on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2004 Update, The Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria and various UN databases.



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